[Country map of Zambia]



Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola

Map references: Africa

total area: 752,610 sq km
land area: 740,720 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,664 km, Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 47%
forest and woodland: 27%
other: 19%

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros and elephant populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
natural hazards: tropical storms (November to April)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Note: landlocked


Population: 9,445,723 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (female 2,331,820; male 2,363,319)
15-64 years: 48% (female 2,332,798; male 2,193,363)
65 years and over: 2% (female 112,484; male 111,939) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.47 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.42 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 86 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.88 years
male: 42.74 years
female: 43.03 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian

Ethnic divisions: African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%

Religions: Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%

Languages: English (official)
note: about 70 indigenous languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 73%
male: 81%
female: 65%

Labor force: 3.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 85%, mining, manufacturing, and construction 6%, transport and services 9%


conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia

Digraph: ZA

Type: republic

Capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution: 2 August 1991

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991); Vice President General Godfrey MIYANDA (since NA August 1994; he replaced Levy MWANAWASA who was elected 31 October 1991 and resigned in NA August 1994) election last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Frederick CHILUBA 84%, Kenneth KAUNDA 16%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held 31 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total) MMD 125, UNIP 25; note - the MMD's majority was weakened by the defection of 13 of its parliamentary members during 1993 and the defeat of its candidates in 4 of the resulting by-elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Frederick CHILUBA; United National Independence Party (UNIP), Kebby MUSOKATWANE; National Party (NP), Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA;


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dunstan Weston KAMANA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roland K. KUCHEL
embassy: corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (1) 228595, 228601, 228602, 228603
FAX: [260] (1) 261538

Flag: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag


Overview: Prior to 1993 the economy had been in decline for more than a decade with falling imports and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stemmed largely from a chronically depressed level of copper production and weak copper prices, generally ineffective economic policies, and high inflation. An annual population growth of 3% brought a decline in per capita GDP of 50% over the decade. However, economic reforms enacted since 1992 have helped reduce inflation, have begun to strengthen the social safety net, and have been accompanied by GDP growth at an estimated 6.8% in 1993 and 4% in 1994. The huge external debt remains a key problem.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.9 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $860 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 89% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $665 million
expenditures: $767 million, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1991 est.)

Exports: $1.01 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners: EC countries, Japan, South Africa, US, India

Imports: $1.13 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures
partners: EC countries, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, US

External debt: $7.3 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate -1% (1992); accounts for 42% of GDP

capacity: 2,440,000 kW
production: 7.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 650 kWh (1993)

Industries: copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops - corn (food staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs

Illicit drugs: increasingly a regional transshipment center for methaqualone and heroin

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $4.8 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $533 million

Currency: 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1 - 672.8 (September 1994), 434.78 (1993), 156.25 (1992), 61.7284 (1991), 28.9855 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 1,273 km
narrow gauge: 1,273 km 1.067-m gauge (13 km double track)
note: not a part of Zambia Railways is the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and New Kapiri M'poshi where it connects to the Zambia Railways system; 891 km of the TAZARA line transit Zambia

total: 36,370 km
paved: 6,500 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 7,000 km; improved, unimproved earth 22,870 km

Inland waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika

Pipelines: crude oil 1,724 km

Ports: Mpulungu

total: 113
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4
with paved runways under 914 m: 39
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 57


Telephone system: NA telephones; facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
local: NA
intercity: high capacity micrwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities
international: 2 INTELSAT earth stations (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 5, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 9
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force, Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,953,967; males fit for military service 1,028,113 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $45 million, 1.4% of GDP (1994)