[Country map of Uganda]



Location: Eastern Africa, west of Kenya

Map references: Africa

total area: 236,040 sq km
land area: 199,710 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total 2,698 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use:
arable land: 23%
permanent crops: 9%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 30%
other: 13%

Irrigated land: 90 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching is widespread
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Environmental Modification

Note: landlocked


Population: 19,573,262 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (female 4,792,164; male 4,834,757)
15-64 years: 49% (female 4,802,650; male 4,704,159)
65 years and over: 2% (female 215,648; male 223,884) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 48.03 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 24.35 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: Uganda is host to refugees from a number of neighboring countries, including Zaire, Sudan, and Rwanda; probably in excess of 100,000 southern Sudanese fled to Uganda during the past year; many of the 8,000 Rwandans who took refuge in Uganda have returned home

Infant mortality rate: 112.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 36.58 years
male: 36.26 years
female: 36.91 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic divisions: Baganda 17%, Karamojong 12%, Basogo 8%, Iteso 8%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Bunyoro 3%, Batobo 3%, European, Asian, Arab 1%, other 23%

Religions: Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%

Languages: English (official), Luganda, Swahili, Bantu languages, Nilotic languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 56%
male: 68%
female: 45%

Labor force: 4.5 million (est.)
by occupation: agriculture over 80%


conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda

Digraph: UG

Type: republic

Capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 39 districts; Apac, Arua, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sototi, Tororo

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution: 8 September 1967, in process of constitutional revision

Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English common law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29 January 1986); Vice President Dr. Specioza Wandira KAZIBWE (since 18 November 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Kintu MUSOKE (since 18 November 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Resistance Council: elections last held 28 March 1993 (next to be held end of 1995); results - 284 non-partisan delegates elected to an interim Constituent Assembly with the principal task of writing a final draft of a new constitution for Uganda on the basis of which a regular Constituent Assembly will be elected
note: first free and fair election in 30 years is to be held by end of 1995

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Political parties and leaders: only party - National Resistance Movement (NRM), Yoweri MUSEVENI
note: Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Milton OBOTE; Democratic Party (DP), Paul SSEMOGEERE; and Conservative Party (CP), Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI continue to exist but are all proscribed from conducting public political activities

Other political or pressure groups: Lord's Resistance Army (LRA); Ruwenzori Movement


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador E. Michael SOUTHWICK
embassy: Parliament Avenue, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795
FAX: [256] (41) 259794

Flag: six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side


Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. In 1990-94, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, and gradually improving domestic security. The economy again prospered in 1994 with rapid growth, low inflation, growing foreign investment, a trimmed bureaucracy, and the continued return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $16.2 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $850 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $365 million
expenditures: $545 million, including capital expenditures of $165 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $237 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: coffee 97%, cotton, tea
partners: US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

Imports: $696 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals, transportation equipment, food
partners: Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

External debt: $2.9 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% (1992); accounts for 5% of GDP

capacity: 160,000 kW
production: 780 million kWh
consumption per capita: 32 kWh (1993)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Agriculture: mainly subsistence; accounts for 57% of GDP and over 80% of labor force; cash crops - coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops - cassava, potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; livestock products - beef, goat meat, milk, poultry; self-sufficient in food

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $169 million

Currency: 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1 - 1,195 (December 1994), 1,195.0 (1993), 1.133.8 (1992), 734.0 (1991), 428.85 (1990), 223.1 (1989)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June


total: 1,300 km single track
narrow gauge: 1,300 km 1.000-m-gauge

total: 26,200 km
paved: 1,970 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 5,849 km; earth, tracks 18,381 km

Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at Jinja and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria

Ports: Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

Merchant marine:
total: 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,091 GRT/NA DWT

total: 29
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 9
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 6
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9


Telephone system: NA telephones; fair system
local: NA
intercity: microwave and radio communications stations
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 9
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Wing

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,231,019; males fit for military service 2,298,654 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 1.7% of budget (FY93/94)