[Country map of Tanzania]



Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique

Map references: Africa

total area: 945,090 sq km
land area: 886,040 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of California
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Land boundaries: total 3,402 km, Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1,424 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 40%
forest and woodland: 47%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 1,530 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture
natural hazards: the tsetse fly and lack of water limit agriculture; flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

Note: Mount Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa


Population: 28,701,077 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (female 6,724,575; male 6,676,652)
15-64 years: 50% (female 7,462,615; male 7,027,551)
65 years and over: 3% (female 425,211; male 384,473) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.55% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 19.81 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: in February 1995, a fresh influx of refugees from civil strife in Burundi brought the total number of Burundian refugees in Tanzania to about 60,000; in addition, since April 1994 more than a half million refugees from Rwanda have taken refuge in Tanzania to escape civil strife in Rwanda

Infant mortality rate: 109 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.53 years
male: 40.88 years
female: 44.22 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.15 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic divisions:
mainland: native African 99% (consisting of well over 100 tribes), Asian, European, and Arab 1%
Zanzibar: NA

mainland: Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 20%
Zanzibar: Muslim 99% plus

Languages: Swahili (official; widely understood and generally used for communication between ethnic groups and is used in primary education), English (official; primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education)
note: first language of most people is one of the local languages

Literacy: age 15 and over has ability to read and write a letter or message in Kisahili (1988)
total population: 59%
male: 71%
female: 48%

Labor force: 732,200 wage earners
by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 10% (1986 est.)


conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Digraph: TZ

Type: republic

Capital: Dar es Salaam
note: some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi

Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UN trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985); First Vice President Cleopa MSUYA (since 5 December 1994); Second Vice President and President of Zanzibar Salmin AMOUR (since 9 November 1990) election last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held 29 October 1995); results - Ali Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition
head of government: Prime Minister Cleopa David MSUYA (since 7 December 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Bunge): elections last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held 29 October 1995); results - CCM was the only party; seats - (241 total, 168 elected) CCM 168

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM or Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan MWINYI; Civic United Front (CUF), James MAPALALA; National Convention for Construction and Reform (NCCR), Lyatonga (Augustine) MREMA; Union for Multiparty Democracy (UMD), Abdullah FUNDIKIRA; Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA), Edwin I. M. MTEI, chairman; Democratic Party (unregistered), Reverend MTIKLA


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Musama NYIRABU
chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Brady ANDERSON
embassy: 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (51) 66010 through 66015
FAX: [255] (51) 66701

Flag: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue


Overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 58% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 5% of the land area. Industry accounts for 8% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production and financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-94 has featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $21 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $750 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $495 million
expenditures: $631 million, including capital expenditures of $118 million (1990 est.)

Exports: $462 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: coffee, cotton, tobacco, tea, cashew nuts, sisal
partners: Germany, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs
partners: Germany, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark

External debt: $6.7 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 9.3% (1990); accounts for 8% of GDP

capacity: 440,000 kW
production: 880 million kWh
consumption per capita: 30 kWh (1993)

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for about 58% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops - corn, wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits, vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production

Illicit drugs: growing role in transshipment of Southwest Asian heroin destined for European and US markets

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $9.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $614 million

Currency: 1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1 - 523.40 (December 1994), 509.63 (1994), 405.27 (1993), 297.71 (1992), 219.16 (1991), 195.06 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June


total: 2,600 km; note - not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation is the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and New Kapiri M'poshi in Zambia; 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km are in Zambia; because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania Railways
narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge

total: 81,900 km
paved: 3,600 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 5,600 km; improved, unimproved earth 72,700 km

Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

Pipelines: crude oil 982 km

Ports: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Lindi, Mkoani, Mtwara, Musoma, Mwanza, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar

Merchant marine:
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,145 GRT/39,186 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

total: 108
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 30
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 16
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 51


Telephone system: 103,800 telephones; fair system operating below capacity
local: NA
intercity: open wire, microwave radio relay, troposcatter
international: 2 satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; includes Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit, Militia

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,188,455; males fit for military service 3,584,912 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $69 million, NA% of GDP (FY94/95)