[Country map of Serbia and Montenegro]

Serbia and Montenegro

Note--Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation


Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

total area: 102,350 sq km
land area: 102,136 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Kentucky
note: Serbia has a total area and a land area of 88,412 sq km making it slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro has a total area of 13,938 sq km and a land area of 13,724 sq km making it slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundaries: total 2,246 km, Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia; 173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: Sandzak region bordering northern Montenegro and southeastern Serbia - Muslims seeking autonomy; disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome

Land use:
arable land: 30%
permanent crops: 5%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 25%
other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
international agreements: NA

Note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast


total population: 11,101,833 (July 1995 est.)
Montenegro: 708,248 (July 1995 est.)
Serbia: 10,393,585 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
Montenegro: *** No data for this item ***
0-14 years: 22% (female 77,498; male 82,005)
15-64 years: 68% (female 236,987; male 241,397)
65 years and over: 10% (female 41,625; male 28,736) (July 1995 est.)
Serbia: *** No data for this item ***
0-14 years: 22% (female 1,095,121; male 1,173,224)
15-64 years: 66% (female 3,431,823; male 3,483,066)
65 years and over: 12% (female 699,488; male 510,863) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate:
Montenegro: 0.79% (1995 est.)
Serbia: 0.51% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
Montenegro: 14.39 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: 14.15 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
Montenegro: 5.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: 8.72 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
Montenegro: -0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: -0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Montenegro: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)
Serbia: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Montenegro: *** No data for this item ***
total population: 79.56 years
male: 76.69 years
female: 82.61 years (1995 est.)
Serbia: *** No data for this item ***
total population: 73.94 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 76.68 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
Montenegro: 1.79 children born/woman (1995 est.)
Serbia: 2 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic divisions: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 2,640,909
by occupation: industry, mining 40% (1990)


conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora

Serbia: SR
Montenegro: MW

Type: republic

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (pokajine, singular - pokajina); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - SFRY)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Zoran LILIC (since 25 June 1993); note - Slobodan MILOSEVIC is president of Serbia (since 9 December 1990); Momir BULATOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 23 December 1990); Federal Assembly elected Zoran LILIC on 25 June 1993
head of government: Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Uros KLIKOVAC (since 15 September 1994), Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September 1995)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly
Chamber of Republics: elections last held 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total, 20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin) seats by party NA
Chamber of Citizens: elections last held 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of votes by party NA; seats - (138 total, 108 Serbian, 30 Montenegrin) SPS 47, SRS 34, Depos 20, DPSCG 17, DS 5, SP 5, NS 4, DZVM 3, other 3

Judicial branch: Savezni Sud (Federal Court), Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Serbian Socialist Party (SPS, former Communist Party), Slobodan MILOSEVIC; Serbian Radical Party (SRS), Vojislav SESELJ; Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Vuk DRASKOVIC, president; Democratic Party (DS), Zoran DJINDJIC; Democratic Party of Serbia (Depos), Vojlslav KOSTUNICA; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPSCG), Momir BULATOVIC, president; People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Milan PAROSKI; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, Slavko PEROVIC; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians (DZVM), Andras AGOSTON; League of Communists-Movement for Yugoslavia (SK-PJ), Dragan ATANASOVSKI; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo (LDK), Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president; Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Sulejman UGLJANIN; Civic Alliance of Serbia (GSS), Vesna PESIC, chairman; Socialist Party of Montenegro (SP), leader NA

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Diplomatic representation in US: US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations; the Embassy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to function in the US

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rudolf V. PERINA
embassy: address NA, Belgrade
mailing address: Box 5070, Unit 1310, APO AE 09213-1310
telephone: [381] (11) 645655
FAX: [381] (11) 645221

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red


Overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by bloody ethnic warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Serbia and Montenegro faces major economic problems; output has dropped sharply, particularly in 1993. First, like the other former Yugoslav republics, it depended on its sister republics for large amounts of foodstuffs, energy supplies, and manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia and Montenegro is the continuation in office of a communist government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. A further complication is the imposition of economic sanctions by the UN in 1992. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable in 1994. Reliable statistics are hard to come by; the GDP estimate of $1,000 per capita in 1994 is extremely rough. Output in 1994 seems to have leveled off after the plunge in 1993.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $10 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $1,000 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (January-November 1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: more than 40% (1994 est.)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: prior to the breakup of the federation, Yugoslavia exported machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: prior to the imposition of UN sanctions trade partners were the other former Yugoslav republics, Italy, Germany, other EC, the FSU countries, East European countries, US

Imports: $NA
commodities: prior to the breakup of the federation, Yugoslavia imported machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials including coking coal for the steel industry
partners: prior to the imposition of UN sanctions trade partners were the other former Yugoslav republics, the FSU countries, EC countries (mainly Italy and Germany), East European countries, US

External debt: $4.2 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

capacity: 10,400,000 kW
production: 34 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,400 kWh (1994 est.)

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; armored vehicles and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery), metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium), mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone), consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances), electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Agriculture: the fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal production of the former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and chicory; Vojvodina also produces fodder crops to support intensive beef and dairy production; Serbia proper, although hilly, has a well-distributed rainfall and a long growing season; produces fruit, grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock production (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo produces fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the mountainous pastures of Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat husbandry; Montenegro has only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast where a Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus, grapes, and rice

Illicit drugs: NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - 102.6 (February 1995 black market rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 3,960 km
standard gauge: 3,960 km 1.435-m gauge (partially electrified) (1992)

total: 46,019 km
paved: 26,949 km
unpaved: gravel 10,373 km; earth 8,697 km (1990)

Inland waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km

Ports: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat

Merchant marine:
Montenegro: total 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 543,511 GRT/891,664 DWT (controlled by Montenegrin beneficial owners)
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 14, container 5, short-sea passenger ferry 1
note: under Maltese and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines flags; no ships remain under Yugoslav flag
Serbia: total 2 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 113,471 GRT/212,742 DWT (controlled by Serbian beneficial owners)
ships by type: bulk 2
note: all under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; no ships remain under Yugoslav flag

total: 54
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 24
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14


Telephone system: 700,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 9, shortwave 0
radios: 2.015 million

broadcast stations: 18
televisions: 1 million

Defense Forces

Branches: People's Army (includes Ground Forces with internal and border troops, Naval Forces, and Air and Air Defense Forces), Civil Defense

Manpower availability:
Montenegro: males age 15-49 194,154; males fit for military service 157,611; males reach military age (19) annually 5,498 (1995 est.)
Serbia: males age 15-49 2,652,224; males fit for military service 2,131,894 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 245 billion dinars, 4% to 6% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results