[Country map of Singapore]



Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Map references: Southeast Asia

total area: 632.6 sq km
land area: 622.6 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 7%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 5%
other: 84%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes


Population: 2,890,468 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (female 327,417; male 348,345)
15-64 years: 70% (female 991,015; male 1,030,668)
65 years and over: 7% (female 105,081; male 87,942) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.93 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.16 years
male: 73.28 years
female: 79.25 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.87 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other 2.3%

Religions: Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist

Languages: Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 89%
male: 95%
female: 83%

Labor force: 1.649 million (1994)
by occupation: financial, business, and other services 33.5%, manufacturing 25.6%, commerce 22.9%, construction 6.6%, other 11.4% (1994)


conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore

Digraph: SN

Type: republic within Commonwealth

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ONG Teng Cheong (since 1 September 1993); election last held 28 August 1993 (next to be held NA August 1997); results - ONG Teng Cheong was elected with 59% of the vote in the country's first popular election for president
head of government: Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990); Deputy Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president, responsible to parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 31 August 1991 (next to be held by 31 August 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total) PAP 77, SDP 3, WP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
government: People's Action Party (PAP), GOH Chok Tong, secretary general
opposition: Workers' Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM; Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), CHEE Soon Juan; National Solidarity Party (NSP), leader NA; Barisan Sosialis (BS, Socialist Front), leader NA; Singapore People's Party (SPP), SIN Kek Tong


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sellapan Rama NATHAN
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Timothy A. CHORBA
embassy: 30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617
mailing address: FPO AP 96534
telephone: [65] 3380251
FAX: [65] 3384550

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle


Overview: Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong service and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links derived from its entrepot history. The economy registered 10.1% growth in 1994, with prospects for 7.5%-8.5% growth in 1995. In 1994, the manufacturing and financial and business services sectors have led economic growth. Exports boomed, led by the electronics sector, particularly US demand for disk drives. Rising labor costs continue to be a threat to Singapore's competitiveness, but there are indications that productivity is keeping up. In applied technology, per capita output, investment, and labor discipline, Singapore has key attributes of a developed country.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $57 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 10.1% (1994)

National product per capita: $19,940 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (1994)

revenues: $11.9 billion
expenditures: $10.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.9 billion (FY93/94 est.)

Exports: $96.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: computer equipment, rubber and rubber products, petroleum products, telecommunications equipment
partners: Malaysia 20%, US 19%, Hong Kong 9%, Japan 7%, Thailand 6% (1994)

Imports: $102.4 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: aircraft, petroleum, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: Japan 22%, Malaysia 16%, US 15%, Taiwan 4%, Saudi Arabia 4% (1994)

External debt: $20 million (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 13% (1994 est.); accounts for 28% of GDP (1993)

capacity: 4,510,000 kW
production: 17 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,590 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology

Agriculture: minor importance in the economy; self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major crops - rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western Europe, and the Third World; also a major money-laundering center

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1 billion

Currency: 1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1 - 1.4524 (January 1995), 1.5275 (1994), 1.6158 (1993), 1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March


total: 38.6 km
narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge

total: 2,883 km
paved: 2,796 km
unpaved: 87 km (1991 est.)

Ports: Singapore

Merchant marine:
total: 563 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,167,596 GRT/17,845,687 DWT
ships by type: bulk 96, cargo 121, chemical tanker 16, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 7, container 78, liquefied gas tanker 6, oil tanker 198, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 22
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 20 countries among which are Japan 35 ships, Denmark 21, Germany 21, Hong Kong 18, Belgium 14, Thailand 11, Sweden 8, US 7, Indonesia 6, and Norway 5; Singapore owns 1 ship under Malaysia registry

total: 10
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1


Telephone system: 1,110,000 telephones; good domestic facilities; good international service; good radio and television broadcast coverage
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: submarine cables extend to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 860,437; males fit for military service 629,973 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, 6% of GDP (1993 est.)