[Country map of San Marino]

San Marino


Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Map references: Europe

total area: 60 sq km
land area: 60 sq km
comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total 39 km, Italy 39 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Natural resources: building stone

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 83%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

international agreements: NA
current issues: NA
natural hazards: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution

Note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines


Population: 24,313 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (female 1,944; male 1,962)
15-64 years: 68% (female 8,243; male 8,354)
65 years and over: 16% (female 2,198; male 1,612) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.88% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 10.98 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.27 years
male: 77.26 years
female: 85.29 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.52 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic divisions: Sammarinese, Italian

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1976)
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%

Labor force: 4,300 (est.)
by occupation: industry 42%, agriculture 3%


conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Digraph: SM

Type: republic

Capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 AD (by tradition)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3 September

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
co-chiefs of state: Captain Regent Marino BOLLINI and Captain Regent Settimio LONFERNINI (for the period 1 April 1995-30 September 1995)
head of government: Secretary of State Gabriele GATTI (since July 1986)
cabinet: Congress of State
note: the popularly elected parliament (Great and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (Co-Chiefs of State) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Great and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which has ten other members, all selected by the Great and General Council; assisting the Captains Regent are three Secretaries of State - Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance - and several additional secretaries; the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has come to assume many of the prerogatives of a prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Great and General Council: (Consiglio Grande e Generale) elections last held 30 May 1993 (next to be held by NA May 1998); results - PDCS 41.4%, PSS 23.7%, PDP 18.6%, ADP 7.7%, MD 5.3%, RC 3.3%; seats - (60 total) PDCS 26, PSS 14, PDP 11, ADP 4, MD 3, RC 2

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (PDCS), Cesare GASPERONI, secretary general; Democratic Progressive Party (PDP - formerly San Marino Communist Party (PSS)), Stefano MACINA, secretary general; San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), Maurizio RATTINI, secretary general; Democratic Movement (MD), Emilio Della BALDA; Popular Democratic Alliance (ADP); Communist Refoundation (RC), Guiseppe AMICHI, Renato FABBRI; Moderate Group, Alvaro SELVA; Social Democratic Party


Diplomatic representation in US:
honorary consulate(s) general: Washington and New York
honorary consulate(s): Detroit

US diplomatic representation: no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)


Overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1993 more than 3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies much of its food.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $380 million (1993 est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $15,800 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (December 1993)

revenues: $275 million
expenditures: $275 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics

Imports: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 42% of labor force

Electricity: supplied by Italy

Industries: tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Agriculture: employs 3% of labor force; products - wheat, grapes, maize, olives, meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs, horses

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Italian lire (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note - also mints its own coins

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,609.5 (January 1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 0 km

total: 104 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: none

Airports: none


Telephone system: 11,700 telephones; automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: microwave and cable links into Italian networks; no communication satellite facilities

broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

broadcast stations: NA; note - receives broadcasts from Italy
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: public security or police force

Defense expenditures: $3.7 million (1992 est.), 1% of GDP