[Country map of Philippines]



Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Map references: Southeast Asia

total area: 300,000 sq km
land area: 298,170 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

International disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claims Malaysian state of Sabah

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper

Land use:
arable land: 26%
permanent crops: 11%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 40%
other: 19%

Irrigated land: 16,200 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds
natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides, active volcanoes, destructive earthquakes, tsunamis
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands


Population: 73,265,584 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (female 13,841,552; male 14,214,234)
15-64 years: 58% (female 21,603,818; male 20,923,307)
65 years and over: 4% (female 1,425,706; male 1,256,967) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.23% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 30.42 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.97 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.65 years
male: 63.16 years
female: 68.25 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine

Ethnic divisions: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%

Languages: Pilipino (official; based on Tagalog), English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 94%
male: 94%
female: 93%

Labor force: 24.12 million
by occupation: agriculture 46%, industry and commerce 16%, services 18.5%, government 10%, other 9.5% (1989)


conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas

Digraph: RP

Type: republic

Capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992); Vice President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992); election last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - Fidel Valdes RAMOS won 23.6% of the vote, a narrow plurality
cabinet: Executive Secretary; appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Kongreso)
Senate (Senado): elections last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - LDP 66%, NPC 20%, Lakas/NUCD 8%, Liberal 6%; seats - (24 total) LDP 15, NPC 5, Lakas/NUCD 2, Liberal 1, independent 1
House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan): elections last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - LDP 43.5%; Lakas/NUCD 25%, NPC 23.5%, Liberal 5%, KBL 3%; seats - (200 total) LDP 87, NPC 45, Lakas/NUCD 41, Liberal 15, NP 6, KBL 3, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Filipino Struggle (Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipinas, LDP), Edgardo ESPIRITU; People Power-National Union of Christian Democrats (Lakas ng Edsa, NUCD and Partido Lakas Tao, Lakas/NUCD); Fidel V. RAMOS, President of the Republic, Raul MANGLAPUS, Jose DE VENECIA, secretary general; Nationalist People's Coalition (NPC), Eduardo COJUANGCO; Liberal Party, Jovito SALONGA; People's Reform Party (PRP), Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO; New Society Movement (Kilusan Bagong Lipunan; KBL), Imelda MARCOS; Nacionalista Party (NP), Salvador H. LAUREL, president


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Chaves RABE
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s): San Diego and San Jose (Saipan)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita Manila 1000
mailing address: APO AP 96440
telephone: [63] (2) 521-71-16
FAX: [63] (2) 522-43-61
consulate(s): Cebu

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star


Overview: Domestic output in this primarily agricultural economy failed to grow in 1992 and rose only slightly in 1993. Drought and power supply problems hampered production, while inadequate revenues prevented government pump priming. Worker remittances helped to supplement GDP. A marked increase in capital goods imports, particularly power generating equipment, telecommunications equipment, and electronic data processors, contributed to 20% annual import growth in 1992-94. Provided the government can cope with the substantial trade deficit and meet the fiscal targets agreed to with the IMF, the Philippines should duplicate the strong growth performance of 1994 in 1995-96.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $161.4 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,310 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.1% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1994)

revenues: $14 billion
expenditures: $15.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.)

Exports: $13.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: electronics, textiles, coconut products, copper, fish
partners: US 39%, Japan 16%, Germany 5%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 4% (1993)

Imports: $21.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: raw materials 40%, capital goods 25%, petroleum products 10%
partners: Japan 23%, US 20%, Taiwan 6%, Singapore 5%, South Korea 5% (1993)

External debt: $40 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.4% (1993); accounts for 28% of GDP

capacity: 6,770,000 kW
production: 20.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 278 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 22% of GDP and about 45% of labor force; major crops - rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangos; animal products - pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 2 million metric tons annually

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; growers are producing more and better quality cannabis despite government eradication efforts; transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for the US

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.6 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $7.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1975-89), $123 million

Currency: 1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 24.622 (January 1995), 26.417 (1994), 22.120 (1993), 25.512 (1992), 27.479 (1991), 24.311 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 800 km (est.); note - including about 390 km in Luzon
narrow gauge: 800 km 1.067-m gauge

total: 160,700 km
paved: 29,000 km
unpaved: 131,700 km

Inland waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels

Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km

Ports: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga

Merchant marine:
total: 552 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,748,083 GRT/14,373,730 DWT
ships by type: bulk 237, cargo 134, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 10, liquefied gas tanker 6, livestock carrier 9, oil tanker 46, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 11, refrigerated cargo 24, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger 17, vehicle carrier 29
note: a flag of convenience registry; Japan owns 13 ships, Norway 2, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, and South Korea 1

total: 269
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 32
with paved runways under 914 m: 133
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 67


Telephone system: 872,900 telephones; good international radio and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
local: NA
intercity: 11 domestic satellite links
international: submarine cables extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan; 3 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

broadcast stations: AM 267 (including 6 US), FM 55, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 33 (including 4 US)
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 18,238,568; males fit for military service 12,876,771; males reach military age (20) annually 752,622 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $731 million, 1.4% of GNP (1992)