[Country map of Pakistan]



Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India and Iran

Map references: Asia

total area: 803,940 sq km
land area: 778,720 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total 6,774 km, Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: status of Kashmir with India; border question with Afghanistan (Durand Line); water-sharing problems (Wular Barrage) over the Indus with upstream riparian India

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 23%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 6%
forest and woodland: 4%
other: 67% (1993)

Irrigated land: 170,000 sq km (1992)

current issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent


Population: 131,541,920 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 28,033,354; male 29,777,818)
15-64 years: 52% (female 33,456,410; male 35,109,482)
65 years and over: 4% (female 2,556,846; male 2,608,010) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 41.8 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.07 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -16.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.86 years
male: 57.18 years
female: 58.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.35 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India and their descendents)

Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%

Languages: Urdu (official), English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Punjabi 64%, Sindhi 12%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu 7%, Balochi and other 9%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 35%
male: 47%
female: 21%

Labor force: 36 million
by occupation: agriculture 46%, mining and manufacturing 18%, services 17%, other 19%
note: extensive export of labor


conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan

Digraph: PK

Type: republic

Capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the republic)

Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985

Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Sardar Farooq LEGHARI; election last held 13 November 1993 (next to be held no later than 14 October 1998); results - LEGHARI was elected by Parliament and the four provincial assemblies
head of government: Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora)
Senate: elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (87 total) PPP 22, PML/N 17; Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8, ANP 6, PML/J 5, JWP 5, MQM/A 5, JUI/F 2, PKMAP 2, JI 2, NPP 2, BNM/H 1, BNM/M 1, JUP/NI 1, JUP/NO 1, JAH 1, JUI/S 1, PML/F 1, PNP 1, independents 2, vacant 1
National Assembly: elections last held 6 October 1993 (next to be held by October 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (217 total) PPP 92, PML/N 75, PML/J 6, IJM-Islamic Democratic Front 4, ANP 3, PKMAP 4, PIF 3, JWP 2, MDM 2, BNM/H 1, BNM/M 1, NDA 1, NPP 1, PKQP 1, Religious minorities 10 reserved seats, independents 9, results pending 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shari'at) Court

Political parties and leaders:
government: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J), Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; National People's Party (NPP), Ghulam Mustapha JATOI; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP), Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI; Balochistan National Movement, Hayee Group (BNM/H), Dr. HAYEE Baluch; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Maulana Kausar NIAZI; Pakhtun Quami Party (PKQP), Mohammed AFZAL Khan; Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Akbar Khan BUGTI
opposition: Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N), Nawaz SHARIF; Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul WALI KHAN; Pakistan Islamic Front (PIF), Qazi Hussain AHMED; Balochistan National Movement, Mengal Group (BNM/M), Sardar Akhtar MENGAL; Mohajir Quami Movement, Altaf faction (MQM/A), Altaf HUSSAIN; Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi Hussain AHMED; Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH)
frequently shifting: Mutaheda Deeni Mahaz (MDM), Maulana Sami-ul-HAQ, the MDM includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction (JUP/NI) and Anjuman Sepah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (ASSP); Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz (IJM-Islamic Democratic Party), the IJM includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur Rehman group (JUI/F); Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction (JUP/NO); Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction (JUI/S); Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group (PML/F); Pakistan National Party (PNP)
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently

Other political or pressure groups: military remains important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Maleeha LODHI
chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6200
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John C. MONJO
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, PSC 1212, Box 2000, Unit 6220, Islamabad; APO AE 09812-2000
telephone: [92] (51) 826161 through 826179
FAX: [92] (51) 214222
consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore
consulate(s): Peshawar

Flag: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam


Overview: The Pakistani economy has made progress in several key areas since Benazir BHUTTO became Prime Minister in October 1993. She has been under pressure from international donors and the IMF - which gave Pakistan a $1.3 billion structural adjustment credit in February 1994 - to continue the economic reforms and austerity measures begun by her predecessor, caretaker Prime Minister Moeen QURESHI (July-October 1993). Foreign exchange reserves climbed to more than $3 billion in 1994, and the budget deficit was substantially reduced. Real GDP growth was 4% in FY93/94, up from 2.3% in FY92/93. Foreign direct and portfolio investment also have increased. Privatization of large public sector utilities began in 1994 with the sale of 12% of the Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation (PTC) and the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA); the sale of state-owned banks and other large units are planned for 1995. Still, the government must cope with long-standing economic vulnerabilities - high levels of debt service and defense spending, a small tax base, a huge population, and dependence on cotton-based exports - which hamper its ability to create a stable economic environment. In addition, Pakistan's infrastructure is inadequate and deteriorating, low levels of literacy constrain industrial growth, and increasing sectarian, ethnic, and tribal violence disrupt production.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $248.5 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,930 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (FY93/94)

Unemployment rate: 10% (FY90/91 est.)

revenues: $10.5 billion
expenditures: $11.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY93/94)

Exports: $6.7 billion (1993)
commodities: cotton, textiles, clothing, rice, leather, carpets
partners: US, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, UK, UAE, France

Imports: $9.5 billion (1993)
commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
partners: Japan, US, Germany, UK, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea

External debt: $24 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.6% (FY93/94); accounts for 18% of GDP

capacity: 10,800,000 kW (1994)
production: 52.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 389 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp

Agriculture: 24% of GDP; world's largest contiguous irrigation system; major crops - cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; livestock products - milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug trade; remains world's third largest opium producer (160 metric tons in 1994); major center for processing Afghan heroin and key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western market

Economic aid:
recipient: $2.5 billion (FY91/92); $2.5 billion (FY92/93); $2.5 billion (FY93/94); no US commitments, includes bi- and multilateral aid

Currency: 1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 30.860 (January 1995), 30.570 (1994), 28.107 (1993), 25.083 (1992), 23.801 (1991), 21.707 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June


total: 8,773 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (286 km electrified; 1,037 double track)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge; 610 km less than 1.000-m gauge (1985)

total: 177,410 km
paved: 94,027 km
unpaved: 83,383 km (1991 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km (1987)

Ports: Gwadar, Karachi, Ormaro (under construction), Port Muhammad bin Qasim

Merchant marine:
total: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 352,189 GRT/532,782 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 25, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 3

total: 119
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 12
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 33
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14
with paved runways under 914 m: 24
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 7
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8


Telephone system: NA telephones; about 7 telephones/1,000 persons; the domestic telephone system is poor, adequate only for government and business use; the system for international traffic is better
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: 3 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) earth stations; microwave radio relay

broadcast stations: AM 19, FM 8, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 29
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard, paramilitary/security forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 30,219,551; males fit for military service 18,544,008; males reach military age (17) annually 1,429,719 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.2 billion, 5.6% of GDP (FY94/95)