[Country map of Mali]



Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Map references: Africa

total area: 1.24 million sq km
land area: 1.22 million sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 7,243 km, Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 7%
other: 66%

Irrigated land: 50 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: landlocked


Population: 9,375,132 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 2,240,565; male 2,242,373)
15-64 years: 49% (female 2,416,952; male 2,165,043)
65 years and over: 3% (female 162,234; male 147,965) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.89% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 51.88 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 19.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 104.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.37 years
male: 44.7 years
female: 48.09 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.33 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian

Ethnic divisions: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy: age 6 and over can read and write (1988)
total population: 19%
male: 27%
female: 12%

Labor force: 2.666 million (1986 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1% (1981)


conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan

Digraph: ML

Type: republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992); election last held in April 1992 (next to be held April 1997); Alpha KONARE was elected in runoff race against Montaga TALL
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held on 8 March 1992 (next to be held February 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (116 total) Adema 76, CNID 9, US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3, UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Association for Democracy (Adema), Ibrahim Baubacar KEITA; National Congress for Democratic Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally (US/RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA; Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa; Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almamy SYLLA; Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), Moussa Balla COULIBALY; Rally for Democracy and Labor (RDT); Union of Democratic Forces for Progress (UFDP), Dembo DIALLO; Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa TRAORE; Malian Union for Democracy and Development (UMDD)


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ibrahim Siragatou CISSE
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant) (Ambassador William H. DAMERON III retired March 1995)
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX: [223] 22 37 12

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia


Overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The economy is beginning to turn around after contracting through 1992-93, largely because of enhanced exports and import substitute production in the wake of the 50% devaluation of January 1994. Post-devaluation inflation appears to have peaked at 35% in 1994 and the government appears to be keeping on track with its IMF structural adjustment program.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $5.4 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $600 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $376 million
expenditures: $697 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Exports: $415 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: cotton, livestock, gold
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports: $842 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction materials, petroleum, textiles
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

External debt: $2.6 billion (1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -1.4% (1992 est.); accounts for 13.0% of GDP

capacity: 90,000 kW
production: 310 million kWh
consumption per capita: 33 kWh (1993)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing, construction, phosphate and gold mining

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other crops - millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $349 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.02 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $190 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 642 km; note - linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes
narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge

total: 15,700 km
paved: 1,670 km
unpaved: gravel, improved earth 3,670 km; unimproved earth 10,360 km

Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports: Koulikoro

total: 33
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 10
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 12


Telephone system: 11,000 telephones; domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay, wire, and radio communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth stations

broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,861,977; males fit for military service 1,062,916 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 2.2% of GDP (1994)