[Country map of Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of]

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of


Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

total area: 25,333 sq km
land area: 24,856 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries: total 748 km, Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: dispute with Greece over name, symbols, and certain constitutional provisions

Climate: hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulphur, timber

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 5%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 30%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants
natural hazards: high seismic risks
international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

Note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe


Population: 2,159,503 (July 1995 est.)
note: the Macedonian government census of July 1994 put the population at 1.94 million, but ethnic allocations were likely undercounted

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (female 257,876; male 277,314)
15-64 years: 67% (female 711,810; male 733,903)
65 years and over: 8% (female 97,475; male 81,125) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.9% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.82 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74 years
male: 71.87 years
female: 76.3 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.02 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic divisions: Macedonian 65%, Albanian 22%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%, Gypsies 3%, other 4%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 591,773 (June 1994)
by occupation: manufacturing and mining 40% (1992)


conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija

Abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.

Digraph: MK

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 counties (opstinas, singular - opstina) Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo, Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: 8 September

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991); election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Kiro GLIGOROV was elected by the Assembly in 1991; reelected by popular vote in 1994
head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4 September 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Sobranje

Legislative branch: unicameral
Assembly (Sobranje): elections last held 16 and 30 October 1994 (next to be held November 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, Judicial Court of the Republic

Political parties and leaders: Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia (SDSM; former Communist Party), Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president; Party for Democratic Prosperity (PDP); note - two factions competing for party name; one faction is led by Abdurahman HALITI and the other faction is led by Arber XHAFFERI; National Democratic Party (NDP), Ilijas HALINI, president; Alliance of Reform Forces of Macedonia - Liberal Party (SRSM-LP), Stojan ANDOV, president; Socialist Party of Macedonia (SPM), Kiro POPOVSKI, president; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE), Ljupco GEORGIEVSKI, president; Party of Yugoslavs in Macedonia (SJM), Milan DURCINOV, president; Democratic Party (DP), Petar GOSEV, president

Other political or pressure groups: Movement for All Macedonian Action (MAAK); Democratic Party of Serbs; Democratic Party of Turks; Party for Democratic Action (Slavic Muslim)


Diplomatic representation in US: the US recognized The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on 8 February 1994

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Victor D. COMRAS
liaison office: ul. 27 Mart No. 5, 9100 Skopje
mailing address: USLO Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] (91) 116-180
FAX: [389] (91) 117-103

Flag: 16-point gold sun (Vergina, Sun) centered on a red field


Overview: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although the poorest republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources. Its economic decline will continue unless ties are reforged or enlarged with its neighbors Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and Bulgaria. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and most of its modern machinery and parts. An important supplement of GDP is the remittances from thousands of Macedonians working in Germany and other West European nations. Continued political turmoil, both internally and in the region as a whole, prevents any swift readjustments of trade patterns and economic programs. The country's industrial output and GDP are expected to decline further in 1995. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's geographical isolation, technological backwardness, and potential political instability place it far down the list of countries of interest to Western investors. Resolution of the dispute with Greece and an internal commitment to economic reform would encourage foreign investment over the long run. In the immediate future, the worst scenario for the economy would be the spread of fighting across its borders.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.9 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: -15% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $900 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 54% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1993 est.)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $1.06 billion (1993)
commodities: manufactured goods 40%, machinery and transport equipment 14%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 23%, raw materials 7.6%, food (rice) and live animals 5.7%, beverages and tobacco 4.5%, chemicals 4.7% (1990)
partners: principally Serbia and Montenegro and the other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Greece, Albania

Imports: $1.2 billion (1993)
commodities: fuels and lubricants 19%, manufactured goods 18%, machinery and transport equipment 15%, food and live animals 14%, chemicals 11.4%, raw materials 10%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 8.0%, beverages and tobacco 3.5% (1990)
partners: other former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Albania, Germany, Bulgaria

External debt: $840 million (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate -14% (1993)

capacity: 1,600,000 kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Industries: low levels of technology predominate, such as, oil refining by distillation only; produces basic liquid fuels, coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, and ferronickel; light industry produces basic textiles, wood products, and tobacco

Agriculture: meets the basic needs for food; principal crops are rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, and millet; also grown are cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus fruit, and vegetables; agricultural production is highly labor intensive

Illicit drugs: limited illicit opium cultivation; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin

Economic aid:
recipient: US $10 million (for humanitarian and technical assistance) EC promised a 100 ECU million economic aid package (1993)

Currency: the denar, which was adopted by the Macedonian legislature 26 April 1992, was initially issued in the form of a coupon pegged to the German mark; subsequently repegged to a basket of seven currencies

Exchange rates: denar per US$1 - 39 (November 1994), 865 (October 1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 922 km
standard gauge: 922 km 1.435-m gauge (1994)

total: 10,591 km
paved: 5,091 km
unpaved: gravel 1,404 km; earth 4,096 km (1991)

Inland waterways: none, lake transport only

Pipelines: none

Ports: none

total: 16
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 11
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2


Telephone system: 125,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: no satellite links

broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: 370,000

broadcast stations: 5 (relays 2)
televisions: 325,000

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 585,403; males fit for military service 474,467; males reach military age (19) annually 19,693 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 7 billion denars, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the prevailing exchange rate could produce misleading results