[Country map of Mongolia]



Location: Northern Asia, north of China

Map references: Asia

total area: 1.565 million sq km
land area: 1.565 million sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total 8,114 km, China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 79%
forest and woodland: 10%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 770 sq km (1989)

current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification
natural hazards: duststorms can occur in the spring
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia


Population: 2,493,615 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 495,919; male 511,464)
15-64 years: 56% (female 693,037; male 693,776)
65 years and over: 4% (female 54,991; male 44,428) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 32.65 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.82 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.54 years
male: 64.28 years
female: 68.92 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.26 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic divisions: Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note: previously limited religious activity because of Communist regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural
note: over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor


conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia

Digraph: MG

Type: republic

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: adopted 13 January 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990); election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) elected directly with 57.8% of the vote; other candidate Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP)
head of government: Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Lhamsuren ENEBISH and Choijilsurengiyn PUREVDORJ (since NA)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the Great Hural

Legislative branch: unicameral
State Great Hural: elections held for the first time 28 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) MPRP 71, United Party of Mongolia 4, MSDP 1
note: the People's Small Hural no longer exists

Judicial branch: Supreme Court serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts

Political parties and leaders: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Budragchagiin DASH-YONDON, secretary general; Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP), D. GANBOLD, chairman; Mongolian Social Democratic Party (MSDP), B. BATBAYAR, chairman; United Party of Mongolia, leader NA
note: opposition parties were legalized in May 1990


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luvsandorj DAWAAGIW
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
embassy: address NA, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [976] (1) 329095, 329606
FAX: [976] (1) 320776

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red, centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)


Overview: Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock. In past years extensive mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Timber and fishing are also important sectors. The Mongolian leadership has been gradually making the transition from Soviet-style central planning to a market economy through privatization and price reform, and is soliciting support from international financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy, however, has still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid, and the country continues to suffer substantial economic hardships, with one-fourth of the population below the poverty line.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,800 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
note: deficit of $67 million

Exports: $360 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
partners: former CMEA countries 62%, China 17%, EC 8% (1992)

Imports: $361 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners: USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5% (1991)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate -15% (1992 est.); accounts for about 42% of GDP

capacity: 900,000 kW
production: 3.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,267 kWh (1993)

Industries: copper, processing of animal products, building materials, food and beverage, mining (particularly coal)

Agriculture: accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 50% of the population; livestock raising predominates (primarily sheep and goats, but also cattle, camels, and horses); crops - wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 415.34 (January 1995), 412.72 (1994), 42.56 (1992), 9.52 (1991), 5.63 (1990)
note: the exchange rate 40 tughriks = 1US$ was introduced June 1991 and was in force to the end of 1992; beginning 27 May 1993 the exchange rate is the midpoint of the average buying and selling rates that are freely determined on the basis of market transactions between commercial banks and the nonbank public

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 1,750 km
broad gauge: 1,750 km 1.524-m gauge (1988)

total: 46,700 km
paved: 1,000 km
unpaved: 45,700 km (1988)

Inland waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Ports: none

total: 34
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 10
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 5


Telephone system: 63,000 telephones (1989)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: at least 1 satellite earth station

broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: 220,000

broadcast stations: 1 (provincial repeaters - 18)
televisions: 120,000

Defense Forces

Branches: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces and Frontier Guards), Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 605,633; males fit for military service 394,433; males reach military age (18) annually 25,862 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million, 1% of GDP (1992)