[Country map of Liechtenstein]



Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Map references: Europe

total area: 160 sq km
land area: 160 sq km
comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total 78 km, Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: claims 1,600 square kilometers of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not go back before February 1948, when the Communists seized power

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 38%
forest and woodland: 19%
other: 18%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation


Population: 30,654 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 2,897; male 2,974)
15-64 years: 71% (female 10,853; male 10,777)
65 years and over: 10% (female 1,930; male 1,223) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.2% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.95 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.56 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.52 years
male: 73.86 years
female: 81.17 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic divisions: Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%, other 2.8% (1988)

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Labor force: 19,905 of which 11,933 are foreigners; 6,885 commute from Austria and Switzerland to work each day
by occupation: industry, trade, and building 53.2%, services 45%, agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 1.8% (1990)


conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Furstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein

Digraph: LS

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established)

National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968)
head of government: Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993); Deputy Head of Government Dr. Thomas BUECHEL (since 15 December 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; elected by the Diet; confirmed by the sovereign

Legislative branch: unicameral
Diet (Landtag): elections last held on 24 October 1993 (next to be held by March 1997); results - VU 50.1%, FBP 41.3%, FL 8.5%; seats - (25 total) VU 13, FBP 11, FL 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases, Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Oswald KRANTZ; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Otmar HASLER; The Free List (FL)


Diplomatic representation in US: in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy

US diplomatic representation: the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band


Overview: Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital service sector and living standards on par with its large European neighbors. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. Liechtenstein plans to join the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between EFTA and EU) in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $630 million (1990 est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $22,300 (1990 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1994)

revenues: $259 million
expenditures: $292 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

Exports: $NA
commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
partners: EC countries 42.7%, EFTA countries 20.9% (Switzerland 15.4%), other 36.4% (1990)

Imports: $NA
commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

capacity: 23,000 kW
production: 150 million kWh
consumption per capita: 5,230 kWh (1992)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.2880 (January 1995), 1.3677 (1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 18.5 km; note - owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways
standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

total: 322.93 km
paved: 322.93 km

Ports: none

Airports: none


Telephone system: 25,400 telephones; limited, but sufficient automatic telephone system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: linked to Swiss networks by cable and radio relay

broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA
note: linked to Swiss networks

broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA
note: linked to Swiss networks

Defense Forces

Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland