[Country map of Croatia]



Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

total area: 56,538 sq km
land area: 56,410 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total 2,028 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with Montenego), Slovenia 501 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International disputes: Ethnic Serbs have occupied UN protected areas in eastern Croatia and along the western Bosnia and Herzegovinian border

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 20%
meadows and pastures: 18%
forest and woodland: 15%
other: 15%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife
natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

Note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits


Population: 4,665,821 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 418,272; male 442,064)
15-64 years: 68% (female 1,592,187; male 1,588,455)
65 years and over: 13% (female 394,650; male 230,193) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.13% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.55 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.02 years
male: 70.59 years
female: 77.65 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Croat(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic divisions: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 95%

Labor force: 1,509,489
by occupation: industry and mining 37%, agriculture 16% (1981 est.), government NA%, other


conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska

Digraph: HR

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija - singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990); election last held 4 August 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Franjo TUDJMAN reelected with about 56% of the vote; his opponent Dobroslav PARAGA got 5% of the vote
head of government: Prime Minister Nikica VALENTIC (since 3 April 1993); Deputy Prime Ministers Mato GRANIC (since 8 September 1992); Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993); Jure RADIC (since NA); Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament Assembly (Sabor)
House of Districts (Zupanije Dom): elections last held 7 and 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (68 total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, Istrian Democratic Assembly 3, SPH-SDP 1, HNS 1
House of Representatives (Predstavnicke Dom): elections last held 2 August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (138 total) HDZ 85, HSLS 14, SPH-SDP 11, HNS 6, Dalmatian Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/ Rijeka Democratic Alliance coalition 6, HSP 5, HSS 3, SNS 3, independents 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Zlatko CANJUGA, secretary general; Croatian Democratic Independents (HND), Stjepan MESIC, president; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS), Drazen BUDISA, president; Croatian Democratic Peasant Party (HDSS), Ante BABIC; Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), Ante DAPIC; Croatian Peasants' Party (HSS), Josip PANKRETIC; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Radimir CACIC, president; Dalmatian Action (DA), Mira LJUBIC-LORGER; Serb National Party (SNS), Milan DJUKIC; Social Democratic Action (SDP), Miko TRIPALO; other small parties include the Istrian Democratic Assembly and the Rijeka Democratic Alliance

Other political or pressure groups: NA


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Petar A. SARCEVIC
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH
embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address: US Embassy, Zagreb, Unit 1345, APO AE 09213-1345
telephone: [385] (41) 456-000
FAX: [385] (41) 440-235

Flag: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)


Overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. At present, Croatian Serb Separatists control approximately one-third of the Croatian territory, and one of the overriding determinants of Croatia's long-term political and economic prospects will be the resolution of this territorial dispute. Croatia faces serious economic problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime Communist mismanagement of the economy; large foreign debt; damage during the fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former Yugoslav republics, as well as within its own territory. At the minimum, extensive Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would seem necessary to revive the moribund economy. However, peace and political stability must come first; only then will recent government moves toward a "market-friendly" economy restore old levels of output. As of February 1995, fighting continues among Croats, Serbs, and Muslims, and national boundaries and final political arrangements are still in doubt.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $12.4 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,640 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 17% (December 1994)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 30%, other manufacturers 37%, chemicals 11%, food and live animals 9%, raw materials 6.5%, fuels and lubricants 5% (1990)
partners: EC countries, Slovenia

Imports: $4.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 21%, fuels and lubricants 19%, food and live animals 16%, chemicals 14%, manufactured goods 13%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 9%, raw materials 6.5%, beverages and tobacco 1% (1990)
partners: EC countries, Slovenia, FSU countries

External debt: $2.9 billion (September 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate -4% (1994 est.)

capacity: 3,570,000 kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction, paper, wood products (including furniture), building materials (including cement), textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food processing and beverages

Agriculture: Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most agricultural land in private hands and concentrated in Croat-majority districts in Slavonia and Istria; much of Slavonia's land has been put out of production by fighting; wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, alfalfa, and clover are main crops in Slavonia; central Croatian highlands are less fertile but support cereal production, orchards, vineyards, livestock breeding, and dairy farming; coastal areas and offshore islands grow olives, citrus fruits, and vegetables

Economic aid:
recipient: IMF, $192 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US $1 - 5.6144 (November 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 2,699 km
standard gauge: 2,699 km 1.435-m gauge (963 km electrified)
note: disrupted by territorial dispute (1994)

total: 27,368 km
paved: 22,176 km (302 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,192 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 785 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992); note - now disrupted because of territorial dispute

Ports: Dubrovnik, Omis, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Zadar

Merchant marine:
total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 181,565 GRT/225,533 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker 2, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 4
note: also controlled by Croatian shipowners are 134 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,286,231 DWT that operate under Maltese and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines registry

total: 76
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 55
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8


Telephone system: 350,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: no satellite links

broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0
radios: 1.1 million

broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)
televisions: 1.027 million

Defense Forces

Branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,183,184; males fit for military service 943,749; males reach military age (19) annually 32,831 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 337 billion to 393 billion dinars, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results