[Country map of Bosnia and Herzegovina]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Note--Bosnia and Herzegovina is set to enter its third year of interethnic civil strife which began in the spring of 1992 after the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence. Bosnia's Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to 'greater Serbia'. In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement in Washington, DC, creating the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A group of rebel Muslims, however, continues to battle government forces in the northwest enclave of Bihac. A Contact Group of countries, the US, UK, France, Germany, and Russia, continues to seek a resolution between the Federation and the Bosnian Serbs. In July of 1994 the Contact Group presented a plan to the warring parties that roughly equally divides the country between the two, while maintaining Bosnia in its current internationally recognized borders. The Federation agreed to the plan almost immediately, while the Bosnian Serbs rejected it.


Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

total area: 51,233 sq km
land area: 51,233 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: as of January 1995, Bosnian Government and Bosnian Serb leaders remain far apart on territorial and constitutional solutions for Bosnia; the two sides did, however, sign a four-month cessation of hostilities agreement effective January 1; the Bosnian Serbs continue to reject the Contact Group Plan submitted by the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Russia, and accepted by the Bosnian Government, which stands firm in its desire to regain lost territory and preserve Bosnia as a multiethnic state within its current borders; Bosnian Serb forces control approximately 70% of Bosnian territory

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 36%
other: 17%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife
natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection


Population: 3,201,823 (July 1995 est.)
note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 337,787; male 370,966)
15-64 years: 68% (female 1,082,357; male 1,085,610)
65 years and over: 10% (female 190,992; male 134,111) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.29 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.51 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.47 years
male: 72.75 years
female: 78.37 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic divisions: Muslim 38%, Serb 40%, Croat 22% (est.)

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 99%

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 1,026,254
by occupation: NA%


Note: The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, formed by the Muslims and Croats in March 1994, remains in the implementation stages.

conventional long form: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Digraph: BK

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: 109 districts (opstinas, singular - opstina) Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Doboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde, Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare, Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad, Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac, Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez, Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
note: currently under negotiation with the assistance of international mediators

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended 1989, 1990, and 1991; the Assembly planned to draft a new constitution in 1991, before conditions deteriorated; constitution of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (including Muslim and Croatian controlled parts of Republic) ratified April 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990), other members of the collective presidency: Ejup GANIC (since NA November 1990), Nijaz DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan KLJUJIC (since NA October 1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA December 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA October 1993)
cabinet: executive body of ministers; members of, and responsible to, the National Assembly
note: the president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Kresimir ZUBAK (since 31 May 1994); Vice President Ejup GANIC (since 31 May 1994)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina): elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo): elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34, HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, LBO 2, DSS 1, DSZ 1, LS 1
note: legislative elections for Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina are slated for late 1994

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Alija IZETBEGOVIC; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH), Dario KORDIC; Serbian Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (SDS BiH), Radovan KARADZIC, president; Liberal Bosnian Organization (LBO), Adil ZULFIKARPASIC, president; Democratic Party of Socialists (DSS), Nijaz DURAKOVIC, president; Party of Democratic Changes, leader NA; Serbian Movement for Renewal (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC; Alliance of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ BiH), Dr. Nenad KECMANOVIC, president; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ), Drazen PETROVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: CE (guest), CEI, ECE, FAO, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ
chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615
FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH
embassy: address NA
mailing address: American Embassy Bosnia, c/o AmEmbassy Vienna Boltzmangasse 16, A-1091, Vienna, Austria; APO: (Bosnia) Vienna, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-9900
telephone: [43] (1) 313-39
FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman crosses with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner to the lower fly side


Overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of February 1995, Bosnia and Herzegovina was being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic warfare that has caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. No economic statistics for 1992-94 are available, although output clearly has fallen substantially below the levels of earlier years and almost certainly is well below $1,000 per head. The country receives substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the international community.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Imports: $NA
commodities: NA
partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; production is sharply down because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-94)

capacity: 3,800,000 kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Industries: steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining (1991)

Agriculture: accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards, vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive (1991)

Illicit drugs: NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held area, presumably to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new Serbian dinars used in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably supplanting local currencies in areas held by Bosnian government

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1994)

total: 21,168 km
paved: 11,436 km
unpaved: gravel 8,146 km; earth 1,586 km (1991)

Inland waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note - pipelines now disrupted

Ports: Bosanski Brod

Merchant marine: none

total: 27
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 11
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8


Telephone system: 727,000 telephones; telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: no earth stations

broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: 840,000

broadcast stations: 6
televisions: 1,012,094

Defense Forces

Branches: Army

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 815,055; males fit for military service 657,454; males reach military age (19) annually 38,201 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP