[Country map of Andorra]



Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Map references: Europe

total area: 450 sq km
land area: 450 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 56%
forest and woodland: 22%
other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion
natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches
international agreements: NA

Note: landlocked


Population: 65,780 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 5,503; male 5,985)
15-64 years: 70% (female 21,873; male 24,334)
65 years and over: 12% (female 4,020; male 4,065) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.92 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.52 years
male: 75.65 years
female: 81.66 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic divisions: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA


conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra

Digraph: AN

Type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a co-principality; the two princes are the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called veguers

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chiefs of state: French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); note - COURTOIS is to become French ambassador to Libreville and his replacement has not been announced; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata (since NA); two permanent delegates (French Prefect Pierre STEINMETZ for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, since NA, and Spanish Vicar General Nemesi MARQUES Oste for the Seo de Urgel diocese, since NA)
head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE (since 21 December 1994) elected by Parliament, following resignation of Oscar RIBAS Reig
cabinet: Executive Council; designated by the executive council president

Legislative branch: unicameral
General Council of the Valleys: (Consell General de las Valls); elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); yielded no clear winner; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil cases, Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group (AND), Oscar RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS; Liberal Union (UL), Francesc CERQUEDA; New Democracy (ND), Jaume BARTOMEU; Andorran National Coalition (CNA), Antoni CERQUEDA; National Democratic Initiative (IDN), Vincenc MATEU; Liberal Union (UL), Marc FORNE
note: there are two other small parties

Member of: ECE, IFRCS (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, UN, UNESCO

Diplomatic representation in US: Andorra has no mission in the US

US diplomatic representation: Andorra is included within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District, and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center


Overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union; it is unclear what effect the European Single Market will have on the advantages Andorra obtains from its duty-free status.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $760 million (1992 est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $14,000 (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

revenues: $138 million
expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)

Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners: France, Spain

Imports: $NA
commodities: consumer goods, food
partners: France, Spain

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

capacity: 35,000 kW
production: 140 million kWh
consumption per capita: 2,570 kWh (1992)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking

Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.2943 (January 1995), 5,5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 132.61 (January 1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 0 km

total: 96 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: none

Airports: none


Telephone system: 17,700 telephones; digital microwave network
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: landline circuits to France and Spain

broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain