[Country map of Armenia]



Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

total area: 29,800 sq km
land area: 28,400 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: supports ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh in their separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani government; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 60%

Irrigated land: 3,050 sq km (1990)

current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies
natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Note: landlocked


Population: 3,557,284 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (female 542,664; male 570,998)
15-64 years: 61% (female 1,103,171; male 1,076,226)
65 years and over: 8% (female 154,784; male 109,441) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.94% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.79 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.66 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.36 years
male: 68.94 years
female: 75.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.06 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic divisions: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1994, most Azeris had emigrated from Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98%

Labor force: 1.578 million
by occupation: industry and construction 34%, agriculture and forestry 31%, other 35% (1992)


conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Digraph: AM

Type: republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 37 regions (shrjanner, singular - shrjan) and 23 cities* (kaghakner, singular - kaghak); Abovyan*, Akhuryani Shrjan, Alaverdi*, Amasiayi Shrjan, Anii Shrjan, Aparani Shrjan, Aragatsi Shrjan, Ararat*, Ararati Shrjan, Armaviri Shrjan, Artashat*, Artashati Shrjan, Art'ik*, Art'iki Shrjan, Ashots'k'i Shrjan, Ashtarak*, Ashtaraki Shrjan, Baghramyani Shrjan, Ch'arents'avan*, Dilijan*, Ejmiatsin*, Ejmiatsni Shrjan, Goris*, Gorisi Shrjan, Gugark'i Shrjan, Gyumri*, Hoktemberyan*, Hrazdan*, Hrazdani Shrjan, Ijevan*, Ijevani Shrjan, Jermuk*, Kamo*, Kamoyi Shrjan, Kapan*, Kapani Shrjan, Kotayk'i Shrjan, Krasnoselski Shrjan, Martunu Shrjan, Masisi Shrjan, Meghru Shrjan, Metsamor*, Nairii Shrjan, Noyemberyani Shrjan, Sevan*, Sevani Shrjan, Sisiani Shrjan, Spitak*, Spitaki Shrjan, Step'anavan*, Step'anavani Shrjan, T'alini Shrjan, Tashiri Shrjan, Taushi Shrjan, T'umanyani Shrjan, Vanadzor*, Vardenisi Shrjan, Vayk'i Shrjan, Yeghegnadzori Shrjan, Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted NA April 1978; referendum on new constitution to be held 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since October 1991) election last held 16 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists about 7%; note - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet 4 August 1990 before becoming president
head of government: Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since 16 February 1993); First Deputy Prime Minister Vigen CHITECHYAN (since 16 February 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Soviet: elections last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held 5 July 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (260 total) non-aligned 136, ANM 52, DPA 17, Democratic Liberal Party 17, ARF 12, NDU 9, Christian Democratic Party 1, Constitutional Rights Union 1, ONS 1, Republican Party 1, Nagorno-Karabakh representatives 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenian National Movement (ANM), Ter-Husik LAZARYAN, chairman; National Democratic Union (NDU), David VARTANYAN, chairman; Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF, Dashnaktsutyun); note - banned until reorganized; Democratic Party of Armenia (DPA; Communist Party), Aram SARKISYAN, chairman; Christian Democratic Party, Azat ARSHAKYAN, chairman; Greens Party, Hakob SANASARIAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman; Republican Party, Ashot NAVARSARDYAN, chairman; Union for Self-Determination (ONS), Paruir AIRIKYAN, chairman


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ruben SHUGARIAN
chancery: Suite 210, 1660 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 628-5766
FAX: [1] (202) 628-5769

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harry J. GILMORE
embassy: 18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (8852) 151-144, 524-661
FAX: [7] (8852) 151-138

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold


Overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a more modern industrial sector, supplying machine building equipment, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy resources. Armenia is a large food importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The economic decline in recent years (1991-94) has been particularly severe due to the ongoing conflict over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and Turkey have blockaded pipeline and railroad traffic to Armenia for its support of the Karabakh Armenians. This has left Armenia with chronic energy shortages because of a lack of capacity and frequent disruptions of natural gas deliveries through unstable Georgia, as well as difficulties in obtaining other types of fuel. In addition, bread is strictly rationed and there are shortages of other goods. In 1994, the economy seemed to bottom out. The government has managed to increase its financial and budgetary discipline, bringing inflation down from around 40% per month in first half 1994 to single digits in second half 1994 and the first quarter of 1995. A full economic recovery cannot be expected until the conflict is settled and the blockade lifted.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (1994 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,290 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27% per month average (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% of officially registered unemployed but large numbers of underemployed (1994 est.)

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $43 million to countries outside the FSU (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment, electrical equipment
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

Imports: $120 million from countries outside the FSU (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1994 est.); accounts for 41% of GDP

capacity: 4,620,000 kW
production: 5.7 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,620 kWh (1994)

Industries: traditionally diverse, including (as a percent of output of former USSR) metalcutting machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing machines (1.9%), electric motors (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear (4.4%), hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (0.8%), washing machines (2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and microelectronics (1990); currently, much of industry is shut down

Agriculture: only 17% of land area is arable; employs 31% of labor force as residents increasingly turn to subsistence agriculture; fruits (especially grapes) and vegetable farming, minor livestock sector; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other liqueurs

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: considerable humanitarian aid, mostly food and energy products, from US and EU; Russia granted 60 billion rubles in technical credits in late 1994 and approved a 110 billion ruble credit almost half of which was to go toward the restart of the Metsamor nuclear power plant

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma (introduced new currency in November 1993)

Exchange rates: dram per US$1 - 406 (end December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 840 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
broad gauge: 840 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

total: 11,300 km
paved: 10,500 km
unpaved: earth 800 km (1990)

Inland waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports: none

total: 11
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 1


Telephone system: about 650,000 telephones; 177 telephones/1,000 persons; progress on installation of fiber optic cable and construction of facilities for mobile cellular phone service remains in the negotiation phase for joint venture agreement
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international connections to other former republics of the USSR are by landline or microwave and to other countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow international gateway switch; 1 INTELSAT satellite link

broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

broadcast stations: NA; note - 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian TV programs
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 877,414; males fit for military service 699,167; males reach military age (18) annually 28,634 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results