[Country map of Antigua and Barbuda]

Antigua and Barbuda


Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

total area: 440 sq km
land area: 440 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
note: includes Redonda

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 7%
forest and woodland: 16%
other: 59%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling


Population: 65,176 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (female 8,062; male 8,390)
15-64 years: 69% (female 22,342; male 22,334)
65 years and over: 6% (female 2,231; male 1,817) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.68% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 17.08 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.4 years
male: 71.32 years
female: 75.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic divisions: black African, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling (1960)
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88%

Labor force: 30,000
by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)


conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Digraph: AC

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: 17 member body appointed by the governor general
House of Representatives: elections last held 8 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 11, UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Lester Bryant BIRD; United Progressive Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER

Other political or pressure groups: United Progressive Party (UPP), headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition of three opposition political parties - the United National Democratic Party (UNDP); the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM); Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by William ROBINSON

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211, 5166, 5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

US diplomatic representation: the post was closed 30 June 1994; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band


Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most important determinant of economic performance. In 1993, tourism made a direct contribution to GDP of about 17%, and also spurred growth in other sectors such as construction and transport. While only accounting for roughly 5% of GDP in 1993, agricultural production increased by 4%. Tourist arrivals remained strong in 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $400 million (1993 est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.4% (1993)

National product per capita: $6,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1992 est.)

revenues: $105 million
expenditures: $161 million, including capital expenditures of $56 million (1992)

Exports: $54.7 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: $260.9 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

External debt: $250 million (1990 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -4.9% (1993 est.); accounts for 6.5% of GDP

capacity: 52,100 kW
production: 95 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,242 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits, vegetables, and livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: a long-time but relatively minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and recent transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US; more significant as a drug money laundering center

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments (1985-88), $10 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March


total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugar cane)

total: 240 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 304 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,188,113 GRT/1,651,190 DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 216, chemical tanker 8, container 48, liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11
note: a flag of convenience registry

total: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2


Telephone system: 6,700 telephones; good automatic telephone system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station; tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe

broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2
radios: NA

broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY90/91)